FG Mineralogy/Geochemistry

Malvern-Panalytical EMPYREAN: Ambient and Non-Ambient PXRD - HTK 1200


The Malvern-Panalytical EMPYREAN X-ray diffractometer is equipped with a Mo or Cu - LLF tube, an Anton Paar HTK 1200N high-temperature furnace chamber and a state-of-the-art X-ray detection system, the GaliPIX3D (with almost 100% efficiency for high-energy Mo radiation). 

This arrangement enables high quality & high resolution data acquisition for room and high temperature experiments (up to 1200 °C in the air) in reflection or transmission geometry.ie

Experimental setup - overview:

Explanations: 1) Mo-LFF tube 2) Focusing mirror 3) HTK 1200N furnace chamber, 4) Capillary extension/ spinner, 5) Sample carrier/ spinner, 6) Motorized height adjustment, 7) GaliPIX3D detector


  • Lattice parameter refinement
  • Refinement of Coefficients of thermal expansion
  • Structure determination
  • Investigation of phase relationships
  • Studies on chemical reactions
  • Dynamic structural changes
  • Capillaries: Measurement of air-sensitive samples and/or small sample quantities, preferred orientation effects are reduced (except for needle-shaped crystallites).

Malvern-Panalytical EMPYREAN: PXRD-Tomographie

The Malvern-Panalytical EMPYREAN X-ray diffractometer is equipped with a Mo-LFF tube (or Cu tube), a rotation sample shaft for CT and a state-of-the-art detection system, the GaliPIX3D, capable of collecting data suitable for 3D processing in computed tomography.

Computed tomography (CT) offers the possibility to analyze and visualize different properties (e.g. quantity/type/connectivity of pores, cracks, inclusions, mineral distribution, preferred directions, wall thickness, surface) quickly and non-destructively by three-dimensional virtual reconstructions of the sample.


  • Building - Construction materials
  • Ceramics
  • Composite materials
  • Foams
  • Electronics 
  • Rocks/minerals

Experimental Setup - Overview

1) Mo or Cu LFF tube in point focus, 2) Incident Beam Optics & Filters, 3) CT rotation sample shaft, 4) Sample holder with sample, 5) GaliPIX3D detector

Experimental parameters (anode material, voltage/current, filter materials, rotation range, step size, time per step, PHD values) can be set according to the sample.

Example: Autocalved aerated concrete

The 3D pore size distribution (which has an influence on strength, permeability, density, thermal insulation, etc.) can be determined and visualized with CT on an X-ray diffractometer in the laboratory

Downloads: PANalytical EMPYREAN

PANalytical EMPYREAN:  Ambient and Non-Ambient PXRD

PANalytical EMPYREAN: Computed Tomography (CT)